Oakland Council May Board Magic Bus by Decriminalizing Natural Psychedelics

Erin Allday and Sarah Ravani, writing for San Francisco Chronicle:

Oakland could become the second city in the country to decriminalize certain natural psychedelics — including “magic mushrooms” — if elected leaders approve a resolution that would instruct law enforcement to stop investigating and prosecuting people using the drugs.

The resolution is scheduled for its first public hearing before the City Council’s public safety committee Tuesday night and could go before the full council as early as June 4. It applies only to psychedelics that come from plants or fungi, not synthetic drugs like LSD or MDMA, also known as ecstasy.

Less than a month after Denver voted to decriminalize psilocybin mushrooms, another U.S. city is on the verge of decriminalizing natural psychedelics. Decriminalize Nature Oakland is the education campaign leading the charge to decriminalize several entheogenic plants, fungi, and natural sources in Oakland, CA:

  • Mushrooms

  • Cacti

  • Iboga-containing plants

  • Extracted combinations of plants similar to Ayahuasca

The definition of “natural psychedelics” will be limited to those containing either indole amines, tryptamines, or phenethlamines.

It’s been amazing watching the psychedelic legalization movement winning recently. Now the million dollar question is, “Will Oakland be able to keep the streak going?”


This Week in Psychoactives - 5.24.19

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CANNABIS

  • Cannabis Compound Eases Anxiety and Cravings of Heroin Addiction (Scientific American)

  • Racial Arrest Disparities Got Worse After Legalization, Study Finds (Leafly)

  • Scientists Now Believe That Cannabis Evolved in Tibet Over 28 Million Years Ago (MERRY JANE)

  • Presidential Candidates Are Cosponsoring A New Marijuana Descheduling Bill (Marijuana Moment)

  • Gun-Related Suicides Fell In California After Medical Marijuana Became Legal, Study Shows (Marijuana Moment)

  • NJ Lawmakers Advance Medical Cannabis, Expungement Bills (Leafly)

  • Luxembourg Unveils Proposals for Cannabis Legalisation Law (Talking Drugs)

  • NFL Teams Up with Players’ Union to Study Weed for Pain Management (MERRY JANE)

  • Legalization Gave Police Time to Fight Real Crime (Leafly)

  • ‘I Can’t Breathe’: Video Shows Grandmother With Arthritis Arrested For CBD At Disney World (Marijuana Moment)

  • As a Deadline for Legalizing Marijuana in Illinois Approaches, a New Poll Finds Strong Public Support (Reason)

  • Texas expansion of medical cannabis nears finish line after Senate approval (The Texas Tribune)

  • Seven-In-Ten Americans Want Federal Marijuana Convictions Automatically Sealed, Survey Finds (Marijuana Moment)

  • Colorado Cops Can No Longer Use Drug-Sniffing Dogs Without Probable Cause (MERRY JANE)

  • Study: Presence Of THC In Blood Not Associated With Crash Culpability (NORML)

  • CBD Might Help You Cut Back On Drinking Alcohol And Reduce Its Damaging Effects, Study Says (Marijuana Moment)

  • Kansas Set to Allow Low-THC Cannabis Oil Beginning July 1 (Leafly)

  • Dogs Keep Getting Accidentally High by Eating Human Feces with Residual THC (MERRY JANE)

  • A Sniff by a Pot-Detecting Dog Requires Probable Cause and Does Not Justify a Search, Says Colorado Supreme Court (Reason)

  • Facebook Is Finally Getting Sued for Its Anti-Weed Policies (MERRY JANE)

  • In a World of Legal Weed, Michael Thompson Languishes in Prison for Selling It in 1994 (The Intercept)

  • Study: Seniors Report That Cannabis Positively Impacts Their Quality of Life (NORML)

  • Thailand Will Now Turn Confiscated Weed into Cannabis Medicine (MERRY JANE)

  • Portland’s Cannabis Taxes Were Mostly Used to Backfill Police Budgets (Willamette Week)

  • House Committee Approves Immigration Bill With Marijuana Protections (Marijuana Moment)

  • UFC Inks Multi-Million Dollar Deal with Canadian Pot Company to Study CBD (MERRY JANE)

  • Overpoliced, Underrepresented: Racial Inequality and Cannabis Capitalism (Harvard Political Review)

  • Where Presidential Candidate Bill de Blasio Stands On Marijuana (Marijuana Moment)

  • Congress Wants To Offer Protections To Universities That Study Cannabis (Big Buds Magazine)

  • Nevada County Directs Nearly $2 Million in Pot Revenue to Help the Homeless (MERRY JANE)

LSD

  • Repair Of Iconic ’60s Era Synthesizer Turns Into Long, Strange Trip For Engineer (KPIX)

  • LSD could help people overcome alcohol dependency (Mixmag)

MAGIC MUSHROOMS

  • 'A grand experiment': how 'shrooms made Denver America's most drug-friendly city (The Guardian)

MDMA

  • MDMA heads to Phase 3 trials for helping PTSD (Big Think)

  • Australian Politician Outs Herself as “Occasional” MDMA User (MERRY JANE)

  • Embracing Ecstasy: Can efforts to bottle MDMA’s magic transform psychiatry? (The Verge)

  • Losing Religion and Finding Ecstasy in Houston (The New Yorker)

  • Mum of teenager who died after taking ecstasy ‘overwhelmed’ by support (Hambleton Today)

AYAHUASCA

  • The Church Where It’s Legal to Use Ayahuasca (VICE)

  • These Ontario police officers are using ayahuasca to treat their PTSD (Global News)

  • Healing Sexual Trauma with Ayahuasca (Chacruna)

  • James English set to spend four days taking mind-bending drugs in Costa Rican jungle for new documentary (The Scottish Sun)

NOVEL PSYCHOACTIVE SUBSTANCES

  • Emerging threats in addiction: will novel psychoactive substance contribute to exacerbating the ongoing drug overdose epidemic? (Springer Link)

NITROUS OXIDE

KETAMINE

  • Study Finds Ketamine Nasal Spray Effective For Treating Depression: What You Should Know (Forbes)

  • First Sublingual Ketamine Drug for Treatment of Acute Pain to be Evaluated in End-of-Phase 2 Meeting with FDA (Yahoo! Finance)

OPIOIDS

  • How Joe Biden’s Drug Policies Supercharged the Opioid Crisis (Politico)

  • Amid opioid crisis, Texas becomes first state where life-saving drug is sold online (Dallas News)

  • Fighting Fentanyl (The Washington Post)

  • In Cities Where It Once Reigned, Heroin Is Disappearing (The New York Times)

  • State Trooper Said Man Took Bag From Fentanyl Supplier, But Video Demonstrated That the Deal Never Went Down (The Appeal)

  • Improving the use of methadone for drug users with tuberculosis to prevent withdrawal (Medical Xpress)

  • Epic twitter thread from a guy who became an accidental heroin smuggler (Boing Boing)

  • State Senate passes amendment to finance Naloxone bulk purchase program (WWLP)

  • Drug addicts fear arrest if they are caught with kits of lifesaving naloxone (Evening Telegraph)

COCAINE

  • Cocaine use doubles in Britain in five years and purity levels at record high (The Independent)

  • How Your Casual Cocaine Habit Is Affecting Your Health (Refinery29)

  • ‘Cocaine Mitch’ McConnell’s campaign rakes in $70K by selling ‘cartel member’ shirts (Washington Examiner)

CAFFEINE

  • Researchers document impact of coffee on bowels (Science Daily)

  • Mom Is Heartbroken After Son Dies From Guzzling 4 Energy Drinks Per Day, Sounds Warning (The Epoch Times)

  • Barista causes controversy by trying to refuse a pregnant woman caffeine (Her)

TOBACCO

KRATOM

KHAT

  • Starving Yemen's drug problem (CNN)

MISCELLANEOUS

  • How to Legalize Every Drug (VICE)

  • The Scientist’s Drug Dealer: How Researchers Get Illicit Drugs (Discover Magazine)

  • Indonesia Sentences Frenchman to Death for Drug Smuggling (TIME)

  • Getting High Is Damaging the Planet – But Mostly Because of Prohibition (VICE)

  • With Denver’s vote on magic mushrooms, will Colorado anchor a psychedelic medicine revolution? (The Colorado Sun)

  • Activists plan to set up permanent overdose prevention site (Kitchener Today)

  • Drinking Water Should Be Free At All Clubs and Festivals, Here's Why (DJMag.com)

  • Joe Biden Killed Rave Culture (The Slot)

  • 'Sad, Disgusting and Disappointing.' New Mexico Little League Field Littered With Discarded Syringes (TIME)

  • Psychedelics, Sex, and Consent: A Brief History (Chacruna)

  • How to Tell Your Doctor You're Using Drugs (VICE)

  • What's the next step for hallucinogens as a health cure? (Dazed)

  • Dr Richard Evans Schultes’ Explorations with Amazonian Shamans and Medicines (Kahpi)

Think Wilder is reader-supported. If you enjoyed this week’s update, please consider helping out by becoming a patron, making a one-time donation, or sharing this post with a friend. Thank you for your support.

Disclaimer: "This Week in Psychoactives" does not censor or analyze the news links presented here. The purpose of this column is solely to catalogue how psychedelics are presented by the mass media, which includes everything from the latest scientific research to misinformation.

Image by Psychedelic Astronaut.


On the Monday following each edition of “This Week in Psychoactives,” I post a “Last Week in Psychoactives” video recap to my YouTube channel. After that is done, I retroactively add the video to the corresponding blog post. Here is this week’s video recap:


This Week in Psychoactives - 5.17.19

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CANNABIS

  • Two Tiny Caribbean Islands Legalized Cannabis for Private and Adult Use (MERRY JANE)

  • Arkansas: Licensed Medical Cannabis Sales Begin (NORML)

  • Washington: Governor Signs Marijuana Expungement Bill Into Law (NORML)

  • Alabama Senate Passes Medical Marijuana Legalization Bill (MERRY JANE)

  • Nebraska Lawmakers Approve Bill To Legalize Medical Marijuana (Marijuana Moment)

  • New Jersey Voters, Not Lawmakers, Will Decide On Marijuana Legalization In 2020 (Marijuana Moment)

  • Leafly Study Debunks Dispensary Myths Around Crime & Teen Use (Leafly)

  • Illegal Marijuana Grows In Pacific Northwest Declined After Legalization, Study Finds (Marijuana Moment)

  • Can CBD Really Do All That? (The New York Times)

  • Legalized ‘Light Cannabis’ Linked With Drop In Pharmaceutical Sales, Study Finds (Marijuana Moment)

  • Grandmother arrested for CBD at Magic Kingdom hires Ben Crump, threatens lawsuit against cops and Disney (Orlando Sentinel)

  • Gov. Cuomo Bails on New York Cannabis Legalization (Leafly)

  • Serious Injuries From Domestic Violence Dropped After Marijuana Decriminalization, Study Finds (Marijuana Moment)

  • America’s Longest-Serving Marijuana Prisoner Released After 39 Years (MERRY JANE)

  • Joe Biden Endorses Marijuana Decriminalization And Rescheduling—But Not Legalization (Marijuana Moment)

  • Half A Million Canadians Are Getting High at Work, According to New Report (MERRY JANE)

  • Detroit Will Pay Out $60,000 to Woman Whose Dogs Were Shot on a Marijuana Raid (Reason)

  • Texas Senate Unanimously Approves Hemp Legalization Bill (Marijuana Moment)

  • No More Horsing Around: CBD Now Banned in Equestrian Competitions (MERRY JANE)

  • New Congressional Bill Aims To Resolve Marijuana Industry Border Issues (Marijuana Moment)

  • Cannabis Study of Expecting Mothers Causes Social Media Controversy (Forbes)

  • Canada Is Seeing Its Fair Share of Dab Lab Explosions, Too (MERRY JANE)

  • Cannabis kombucha, gluten-free edibles: weed companies jump on wellness trends (The Guardian)

  • Oregon Senate Votes To Legalize Interstate Marijuana Imports And Exports (Marijuana Moment)

  • Doctors and Teachers in Utah Can Now Smoke Medical Marijuana Without Fear (MERRY JANE)

  • Where Presidential Candidate Steve Bullock Stands On Marijuana (Marijuana Moment)

  • Illinois Survey That Supposedly Shows Support for Legalizing Marijuana Is 'Dwindling' Actually Shows It Is Rising (Reason)

  • Medicinal cannabis users focus of new research (Scoop)

LSD

  • Jeopardy Contestants Are Getting Tested On Their Marijuana And LSD Knowledge (Marijuana Moment)

  • Inside the first placebo-controlled studies testing if microdosing LSD actually works (WIRED)

  • The Sad Tale of Frank Olson, the US Government's Hallucinogen Fall Man (Pacific Standard)

  • How LSD May Facilitate Communing With Nature (Medium)

MAGIC MUSHROOMS

  • Michael Pollan: Not So Fast on Psychedelic Mushrooms (The New York Times)

  • Denver Psilocybin Decriminalization Activist Pushes Back Against Michael Pollan’s Criticism (Marijuana Moment)

MDMA

  • Yorkshire police issue MDMA warning after death of 15-year-old girl (The Guardian)

5-MEO-DMT

  • A statement regarding the misinterpretation and misrepresentation of the study of 5-MeO-DMT (Psychedelics Today)

MESCALINE

  • The Fascinating History of Mescaline, the OG Psychedelic (VICE)

SYNTHETIC CANNABINOIDS

  • Canada Is Giving Prisoners Synthetic Weed, Not Real Medical Marijuana (MERRY JANE)

  • Synthetic cannabinoid alert system to be in place by end of year (Newsie)

OPIOIDS

  • Only One Major Ontario City Refuses to Let Police Carry Life-Saving Naloxone (VICE)

  • 5 More States Sue Purdue Pharma and Other Drugmakers Over the Opioid Epidemic (TIME)

  • Heroin Overdose Parties Are a Dehumanizing Myth (VICE)

  • A new study backs up a lifesaving approach to the opioid epidemic (Vox)

COCAINE

  • Global Drug Survey: Large Majority of Cocaine Users Would Pay More for Safer, “Fair Trade” Supply (Filter)

  • Study may help prevent relapse in cocaine use disorder patients (EurekAlert!)

  • Canada ranks second in the world for cocaine use (but feels conflicted about it): Report (National Post)

  • 'The cocaine trade is booming': 54% of Irish people who use cocaine want to cut down (TheJournal.ie)

  • Top health experts warn cocaine is ‘absolutely rampant’ in Ireland as Health Minster Simon Harris launches plans to tackle epidemic (The Sun)

METHAMPHETAMINE

CAFFEINE

  • How Much Coffee Is Too Much? Drinking 6 Cups In A Day Is Bad For The Heart, Study Shows (Study Finds)

  • This Cup of Joe Costs $75 and Is Being Touted as the World's Most Expensive Coffee (TIME)

TOBACCO

  • Maryland raises legal tobacco purchasing age to 21 (The Hill)

  • Campaign to raise minimum smoking age to 21 finds unlikely supporter: Big Tobacco (CNBC)

ALCOHOL

  • Psychedelic Drugs Can Help Alcoholics Stop Drinking, According To New Study (IFLScience)

  • Britons get drunk more often than 35 other nations, survey finds (The Guardian)

  • Doctors turn to alcohol, food and drugs to cope with work stress (The Guardian)

  • OU approves alcohol sales at sporting events (KTUL)

NOOTROPICS

  • The Majority Of People Are Fine With Brain Doping, As Long As You Don't Call It That (Forbes)

KHAT

  • New study shows chewing miraa bad for mental health (Tuko.co.ke)

MISCELLANEOUS

  • Leading U.S. Prosecutors Visit Portugal To Learn About Drug Decriminalization (Marijuana Moment)

  • Joe Biden once said a fence was needed to stop 'tons' of drugs from Mexico (CNN)

  • Elizabeth Warren Knows What It Will Take to End the Drug War (The Slot)

  • The Ethics of Taking the Drugs You Study (VICE)

  • Bolsonaro Cuts Harm Reduction, Escalates Drug War (Filter)

  • Queering Psychedelics conference aims to expand definitions, minds (48 Hills)

  • Number of Women Arrested for Drugs Increases at Four Times the Rate of Men (Filter)

  • Seeking a safe place: Vancouver’s story (The Boston Globe)

  • Magic Mushrooms, Psychedelics and Chronic Pain (Pain News Network)

  • Booker Bill Would Protect Students With Drug Convictions From Losing Federal College Aid (Marijuana Moment)

  • How the War on Drugs Kept Black Men Out of College (The Atlantic)

  • Lawmakers Schedule Psychedelic Decriminalization Hearing In Oakland (Forbes)

Think Wilder is reader-supported. If you enjoyed this week’s update, please consider helping out by becoming a patron, making a one-time donation, or sharing this post with a friend. Thank you for your support.

Disclaimer: "This Week in Psychoactives" does not censor or analyze the news links presented here. The purpose of this column is solely to catalogue how psychedelics are presented by the mass media, which includes everything from the latest scientific research to misinformation.

Image by Psychedelic Astronaut.


On the Monday following each edition of “This Week in Psychoactives,” I post a “Last Week in Psychoactives” video recap to my YouTube channel. After that is done, I retroactively add the video to the corresponding blog post. Here is this week’s video recap:


This Week in Psychoactives - 5.10.19

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CANNABIS

  • Debunking Reefer Madness: New Study Says Weed Doesn’t Actually Cause Psychosis (MERRY JANE)

  • Top Congressional Democrats Announce Bill To Federally Deschedule Marijuana (Marijuana Moment)

  • Study: 80 percent of cannabis users say weed helps their workouts (Fox 8)

  • New Zealand Government Releases Details Of Marijuana Legalization Referendum (Marijuana Moment)

  • China Cashes In on the Cannabis Boom (The New York Times)

  • Illinois Governor Announces Plan to Legalize Marijuana (TIME)

  • THC-Blood Levels Can’t Be Determined Postmortem, Research Finds (Leafly)

  • Cannabis Users Have Worse Sperm Health Than Tobacco Smokers, Study Finds (MERRY JANE)

  • North Dakota: Governor Signs Law Reducing Marijuana Possession Penalties (NORML)

  • The First Arkansas Medical Marijuana Dispensary Just Got Its License (Leafly)

  • TSA to Travelers: We’re Not Looking for Your Weed (MERRY JANE)

  • Louisiana House Unanimously Approves Bill to Allow CBD Sales (Leafly)

  • Cannabis Industry Work Costing U.S. Veterans Their Retirement Pensions (Forbes)

  • The Great White Shortage: Canada May Soon Run Out of CBD (MERRY JANE)

  • Alabama Senate Approves Bill To Legalize Medical Marijuana (Marijuana Moment)

  • Workers Are Smoking Weed More Than Ever, So Employers Are Dropping Drug Tests (MERRY JANE)

  • California Cannabis Market Not Tracked or Traced as Promised (Leafly)

  • Marijuana Patients Are Ditching Benzos for Weed, Study Says (MERRY JANE)

  • The Feds Prosecuted Even Fewer Marijuana Trafficking Cases In 2018 (Marijuana Moment)

  • Ohio May Become First State to OK Medical Marijuana for Depression and Insomnia (MERRY JANE)

  • Federal Agency Clarifies Rules On Adding CBD To Alcoholic Beverages (Marijuana Moment)

  • American Accused of Growing Weed in Myanmar Faces 10 Years in Prison (MERRY JANE)

  • Texas House Votes To Expand State’s Medical Marijuana Program (Marijuana Moment)

  • The Science Behind Combining Cannabis And Caffeine (Benzinga)

MAGIC MUSHROOMS

  • Denver Voters Approve Measure To Decriminalize Psychedelic Mushrooms (Forbes)

  • California Activists Take First Steps To Decriminalize Psilocybin Mushrooms Statewide (Marijuana Moment)

MDMA

  • MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for PTSD may have benefits beyond reductions in clinical symptoms (PsyPost)

  • MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for treatment of PTSD: study design and rationale for phase 3 trials based on pooled analysis of six phase 2 randomized controlled trials (Springer Link)

  • Consider This Before Self-Medicating With MDMA (The Wall Street Journal)

AYAHUASCA

  • Health Canada allows more religious groups to import ayahuasca (Global News)

  • Ayahuasca and the Twelve Steps: An Anonymous Friendship (Chacruna)

  • The Problem With Ayahuasca (Thrive Global)

SYNTHETIC CANNABINOIDS

  • CDC traces unexplained bleeding outbreak to synthetic cannabinoids (Healio)

KETAMINE

  • Former Playboy Model’s Killer Was ‘Out Of His Mind’ On Ketamine During The Brutal Slaying, Lawyer Says (Oxygen)

OPIOIDS

  • Opioid overdose deaths decline when pharmacists can dispense naloxone (Reuters)

  • Study: Naloxone Prescriptions Low Despite Deadly Opioid Crisis (U.S. News and World Report)

  • Federal Court Rules Inmate Must Have Access to Opioid Addiction Treatment (Reason)

  • Narcan, the lifesaving overdose-reversal drug, is scarce in N.J. cities that need it most (Philadelphia Inquirer)

  • AHN Researcher Working To Develop Longer-Lasting Naloxone For Opioid Overdoses (WESA)

  • Inside Elizabeth Warren's $100 Billion Policy Plan to Tackle the Opioid Epidemic (Fortune)

  • White patients far more likely to get popular addiction treatment prescription, study finds (Philadelphia Inquirer)

  • Report: nurses who carry naloxone denied life insurance coverage (WKBW)

  • Louisiana prisons pilot addiction-fighting implants for inmates; lack of FDA approval draws criticism (The Advocate)

  • Deputy and two firefighters hospitalized after fentanyl exposure (WDBO)

COCAINE

  • Feds: A popular drug from the disco era is making a deadly return (NBC News)

  • The mums who took cocaine during play dates (BBC)

  • FLASHBACK: Bernie Asks Group Of Young Children: ‘Anyone Ever Seen Cocaine?’ (The Libertarian Republic)

METHAMPHETAMINE

  • Meth Abusers At Risk For Little-Known But Potentially Deadly Disease (NBC 7 San Diego)

TOBACCO

ALCOHOL

  • Alcohol use soaring worldwide: The average adult now consumes about 1.7 gallons of pure alcohol per year (USA Today)

  • These policies were supposed to stop pregnant women from drinking. A new study says they’re hurting babies. (Vox)

  • One in five harmed by others drinking alcohol over past year, survey finds (The Guardian)

  • The War On Alcohol: Is This Prohibition 2.0 (Forbes)

KRATOM

  • The Debate Over Kratom, An Opioid-Like Plant Legal In Massachusetts (CBS Boston)

  • Oxford Police proposes ban on Kratom products (The Oxford Eagle)

  • How Cannabis and Kratom Can Help With Addiction Recovery (Civilized)

MISCELLANEOUS

  • 1,000-Year-Old Pouch Contains Traces of 5 Ancient Psychoactive Drugs (Inverse)

  • Mexico’s President Proposes Drug Decriminalization With Legal Supply Via Prescription (Marijuana Moment)

  • Feds Dismantled the Dark Web Drug Trade—but It's Already Rebuilding (WIRED)

  • Berlin park designates 'pink zone' areas for drug dealers (The Guardian)

  • Drug-testing device gives false positives on poppy seeds, CBD oil, says Vancouver lawyer (CBC)

  • Overdose In An Arizona Prison? Get Ready to Pay Up. (The Appeal)

  • Where Philadelphia stands on supervised-injection sites, per two polls (Philadelphia Inquirer)

  • Houston Police Shot Man Killed in Fraudulent Drug Raid at Least Eight Times (Reason)

Think Wilder is reader-supported. If you enjoyed this week’s update, please consider helping out by becoming a patron, making a one-time donation, or sharing this post with a friend. Thank you for your support.

Disclaimer: "This Week in Psychoactives" does not censor or analyze the news links presented here. The purpose of this column is solely to catalogue how psychedelics are presented by the mass media, which includes everything from the latest scientific research to misinformation.

Image by Psychedelic Astronaut.


On the Monday following each edition of “This Week in Psychoactives,” I post a “Last Week in Psychoactives” video recap to my YouTube channel. After that is done, I retroactively add the video to the corresponding blog post. Here is this week’s video recap:


Berlin Park Designates ‘Pink Zone’ Areas for Drug Dealers

Kate Connolly, writing for The Guardian:

Drug dealers in Berlin are to be given designated spaces in a city centre park to carry out transactions, leading to criticism that authorities have capitulated to criminal gangs.

For years there has been a heated debate about Görlitzer Park, a popular meeting point in the trendy southern Berlin district of Kreuzberg, which has been attracting an ever increasing number of drug dealers. Local people said they were reluctant to let children and pets roam free there.

After repeated attempts by police to clear the dealers failed, the park manager declared areas where they should be allowed to operate, identified by spray-painted pink boxes.

Cengiz Demirci said the pink zones would mean that visitors to the park – known locally as Görli – were no longer intimidated by groups of dealers, typically men operating in gangs, who crowd the entrance.

What a peculiar approach.