books

This Week in Psychoactives - 8.16.19

ThisWeekInPsychoactives.jpeg

CANNABIS

  • Scent of unburnt marijuana exclusively is not grounds to search warehouse, SJC rules (The Boston Globe)

  • Vaping linked to marijuana use in young people, research says (CNN)

  • Here Are The Top 20 Most And Least Marijuana-Friendly U.S. Colleges (Marijuana Moment)

  • UC Davis Partners With DEA-Approved Company to Conduct Cannabis Research (UC Davis)

  • Cannabis restaurants are coming to California, with 'budtenders' and 'flower' service (The Washington Post)

  • Where Presidential Candidate Andrew Yang Stands On Marijuana (Marijuana Moment)

  • Outside Lands Music Festival Raked in $1 Million in Legal Weed Sales (MERRY JANE)

  • Adults who mix cannabis with opioids for pain report higher anxiety, depression (Science Daily)

  • Medicinal cannabis: the hype is strong, but the evidence is weak (The Guardian)

  • Lack of Patient Protection Gets Colorado a "B" Grade in Medical Marijuana (Westword)

  • Is Your Weed Vegan? How Vegan Weed and Veganic Farming Avoids Fertilizers that Impact the Purity and Safety of Cannabis (Psychedelic Times)

MAGIC MUSHROOMS

  • There’s Already a Company Developing Magic Mushroom Tea and Coffee in Denver (MERRY JANE)

  • Oregon Activists Take Next Step To Legalize Psilocybin For Medical Use (Marijuana Moment)

MDMA

  • Swingers Love Combining Ecstasy with Sex, Study Finds (MERRY JANE)

  • Ecstasy 'too child-friendly' as deaths rise to record levels (BBC)

  • Devastated mum of girl, 13, who died after taking ecstasy blames herself and wishes she’d told her ‘I love you’ (The Sun)

IBOGA

NOVEL PSYCHOACTIVE SUBSTANCES

  • Synthetic MDMA-Like Drug Banned, Reportedly Linked to 125 Deaths (Your EDM)

SYNTHETIC CANNABINOIDS

NITROUS OXIDE

OPIOIDS

  • Overdose survival rates high with naloxone, Stockton study finds (The Press of Atlantic City)

  • How to get naloxone, the antidote for an opioid overdose, in Maryland (The Baltimore Sun)

  • ETSU installs overdose drug Naloxone in every residence hall (WCYB)

CAFFEINE

  • Drinking coffee before bed does not affect sleep quality, study finds (Fox17)

  • Comparing different caffeine doses, as opposed to comparing to placebo alone, leads to robust sports nutrition conclusions, paper argues (NutraIngrediants-usa.com)

TOBACCO

  • The World Health Organization Blithely Denies Vaping Science (Filter)

  • FDA Rolls Out New Graphic Warnings For Cigarette Packages And Tobacco Ads (NPR)

  • WHO statement urging governments to ban tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship at international expositions (World Health Organization)

ALCOHOL

  • Religion and Drinking Alcohol in the U.S. (Gallup)

  • Bud and Booze Make Bad Bedfellows, Study Says (MERRY JANE)

KRATOM

MISCELLANEOUS

  • All U.S. Adults Should Be Screened for Illicit Drug Use, National Panel Urges (U.S. News & World Report)

  • Stay Off Your Phone While You're High, Study Says (MERRY JANE)

  • Benefits and challenges of psychedelic microdosing – as reported by microdosers (BMC Blogs Network)

  • The 40 Best Books About Shamanism and Plant Medicines (Chacruna)

Think Wilder is reader-supported. If you enjoyed this week’s update, please consider helping out by becoming a patron, making a one-time donation, or sharing this post with a friend. Thank you for your support.

Disclaimer: "This Week in Psychoactives" does not censor or analyze the news links presented here. The purpose of this column is solely to catalogue how psychedelics are presented by the mass media, which includes everything from the latest scientific research to misinformation.

Image by Psychedelic Astronaut.


On the Monday following each edition of “This Week in Psychoactives,” I post a “Last Week in Psychoactives” video recap to my YouTube channel. After that is done, I retroactively add the video to the corresponding blog post. Here is this week’s video recap, which actually covers the past four weeks’ worth of news since I was away on vacation for a few weeks:


Book Review - The Psychedelic Explorer's Guide

ThePsychedelicExplorersGuide.jpg

I have absorbed a lot of information concerning psychedelic substances during the past 13 years. Some sources took a scientific approach, full of statistics, surveys, and other assorted data. Others have focused on the spiritual use of these substances, which include direction for practices like meditation, yoga, and breathwork. There are also accounts of recreational use, which clearly illustrate the possibilities of both positive and negative outcomes of using and abusing these substances. I ate up as many books, movies, podcasts, YouTube clips, and audio lectures as I possibly could.

I also have my own experiences with several of these substances, and had already come to my personal opinion that they have the potential to awaken in me unexpected paths in my life, greater self-understanding, an ability to engage in self-healing, and a stronger connection with the Universe and the inhabitants of our planet that we call Earth.

Over the years, I learned a lot about psychedelics and often come noticed myself thinking to myself, "Oh, I've learned that already" while reading a book or watching a documentary. However, when I read James Fadiman's The Psychedelic Explorer's Guide: Safe, Therapeutic, and Sacred Journeys back in 2012 I found it to be the first work in quite a while that had so many new things to teach me. This book covers many aspects concerning psychedelic use that I was previously unaware of, such as the concept of sub-perceptual dosing and the importance of listening to non-vocal music such as Classical during the beginning of a psychedelic experience.

I first heard of this book from Lorenzo Hagerty's "Psychedelic Salon," a podcast that I have listened to since 2006. Fadiman is the guest on episode 302, during which Lorenzo interviews him about the book and his experience in the psychedelic research field. After hearing Fadiman speak about these things, I put the book on my "To-Read" list and purchased it a few months later. My intention when reading this book was to learn how to become a guide for others undergoing psychedelic experiences. I was pleasantly surprised by the wealth of information contained in the book afforded to those of us who wish to better integrate our psychedelic journeys into ordinary reality as well as learn to be a better guide to others. Following my reading of this book, I identified some aspects of my own psychedelic practice that I ended up changing in an effort to focus more on the therapeutic and spiritual uses of these substances, rather than my previous goal of just having a good time. While I still believe that the recreational use of these substances can have a positive outcome, this is the book that sold on the concept of using them in a more intelligent manner.

The Psychedelic Explorer’s Guide does a great job of dispelling some of the myths about psychedelics, offers a practical and positive itinerary for a successful experience, introduces several important people in this field, and does so in a way that is unbiased and helpful. It is important for the psychedelic community to have truth on its side, and Fadiman does an excellent job of collecting both scientific and anecdotal evidence and arranging it in a way that is easily understood. I commend him on his work and look forward to more coming from him in the near future.

5/5 stars. 352 pages.

Click here to buy the book.

Disclaimer: Think Wilder is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to amazon.com. I may earn a small commission for my endorsement, recommendation, testimonial, and/or link to any products or services from this website.

Book Review - Medical Psychedelics

MedicalPsychedelics.png

After a bit of a rocky start last century, the past few decades have seen a healthy resurgence of psychedelic research. And although myriad studies have been carried out by researchers and published in scientific journals during that time, there has always been a glaring absence of academic textbooks available for burgeoning psychedelic nerds, researchers, and academics to reference when trying to learn about the existing body of psychedelic research—until now.

Fortunately for the rest of us, Dr. Oliver Rumle Hovmand, a psychiatry resident in Denmark who has an interest in the clinical use of psychedelics, pored over the existing research, put together a collection of the most important studies, and included them in a new book that was published this March.

Medical Psychedelics explores the clinical applications of some of the better-known psychedelics, including LSD, psilocybin, ayahuasca, DMT, MDMA, and ketamine. In it, Hovmand examines the available pre- and post-prohibition medical literature, focusing on the practical aspects of psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy. He plans to update the book annually and develop it into a textbook that can be used when (or if) these substances become legal. This blog post is a review of the first of what will hopefully be many editions of this work.

The intended audience for the book would probably consist of medical and psychological professionals, budding researchers, science-minded psychonauts, and laypeople who are interested in learning more about clinical psychedelic research. If you fit into one of these categories, it might be right up your alley.

During the book’s introduction, Hovmand mentions that he uses the term “psychedelics” to refer only to classical psychedelics like psilocybin and LSD, but Medical Psychedelics also covers ayahuasca and DMT, one empathogenic psychedelic (MDMA) and one dissociative psychedelic (ketamine). The primary emphasis is on the classical psychedelics and MDMA, although there may simply be a larger body of research about these psychedelics than ayahuasca, DMT, and ketamine at this time.

Each substance is covered in depth at the beginning of its respective chapter, including the history, effects, and risks surrounding that particular drug. Hovmand then moves on to discuss its potential applications in psychedelic therapy before getting to the real essence of the chapter: a review of the existing clinical research. This consists of a series of actual research studies that are included in the book.

While I did find Medical Psychedelics to live up to its promise as a comprehensive textbook on the subject, there were a few things that I believe could be improved upon in a future edition. For starters, a table of contents would be helpful. This would make it easier to skip to certain sections of the book or find specific studies and would acquaint first-time readers with its structure before they dive in.

Some sections are more fleshed out than others. For example, there is a ton of information available on MDMA research but very little about ketamine. As mentioned earlier, this is may be due to the possibility that there is more research about some drugs than others. In addition, several areas of research into these drugs were excluded that could have been explored, like treating eating disorders with ayahuasca and MDMA or reducing pain with ketamine.

And there are plenty of other psychedelics to cover as well. Delving into the research involving other psychedelics like mescaline, 5-MeO-DMT, iboga, and salvia divinorum would take Medical Psychedelics to another level.

The only other thing I think the book would benefit from is a bit of editorial polish. There are typos here and there, but the overall meaning of the work is not lost and it can be easily overlooked as long as you know to expect that going into it. All of these are simply areas of opportunity, not dealbreakers that should prevent anyone from reading the book who would otherwise be interested in doing so.

Medical Psychedelics is a solid attempt at what may be the first-ever textbook on psychedelic research. Hovmand did an excellent job condensing a ton of valuable information into a fairly small book, and it could prove to be an invaluable resource for anyone who wants to learn about the clinical research into the medical applications of psychedelics. But if you’re looking for anything other than scientific research studies and related commentary then you should probably look elsewhere. It is an academic textbook after all, so you shouldn’t expect an easy read or clever prosaic writing style. But if this book sounds like it would be up your alley, then it probably is.

4/5 stars, 219 pages

Click here to buy the book.

Disclaimer: Think Wilder is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to amazon.com. I may earn a small commission for my endorsement, recommendation, testimonial, and/or link to any products or services from this website.

In addition, the author provided a free copy of this book in exchange for an honest review. However, this is not a sponsored post—all thoughts and opinions expressed here are my own.

Book Review - Buddhist Meditation

BuddhistMeditation.png

I’ve read a lot of meditation books on my quest in an effort to deepen my own practice, but Buddhist Meditation by Edward Conze is without a doubt the most scholarly text on the subject that I have come across thus far. Originally published in 1972, this book wastes no time at all before diving deep into the material. In the introduction, Conze briefly discusses the meaning and purpose of Buddhist meditation, its range and principal divisions, the literary sources from which the practice stems, and a comparison of this Eastern science of mind with modern-day Western psychotherapy.

From there, the book is broken up into four major sections. The first goes over devotional exercises that Buddhist meditators can work on while meditating. The other sections go over three aspects of the practice—mindfulness, trance, and wisdom. The book features advice on how to cultivate and maintain mental and physical awareness, which includes instructions on postures, breathing, rejection of the sensory world, and above all the recollection of the ultimate goal: nirvana.

Buddhist Meditation is considered by many to be a classic text. It’s included in the list of suggested books to read at the end of Ram Dass’ seminal spiritual book Be Here Now, which is where I probably first heard of it. Unfortunately, I didn’t enjoy this book as much as I had hoped I would. It’s a very dry read. All in all I found it to be a bit esoteric and unhelpful, frankly, which was a disappointment because I think it probably contains helpful information that I would benefit from putting to use in my own meditation practice, but I just couldn’t get past the writing style to those nuggets of wisdom.

I did finish reading this book, and I even highlighted some of the pages. There were some parts that I really liked, and on the whole I have a positive opinion of it. Maybe it’ll be good review material in 20 years after I’ve learned more about these concepts from more entertaining authors and teachers. While I wouldn’t recommend Buddhist Meditation to most people, if you consider yourself to be really interested in Buddhism and want to learn more about the role of meditation in this tradition, then maybe you’ll appreciate it. Anyone else should probably steer clear and pick out a more accessible book on the topic.

3/5 stars. 192 pages.

This Week in Psychoactives - 4.12.19

ThisWeekInPsychoactives.jpeg

CANNABIS

  • Israel Decriminalizes Adult Use Cannabis During CannaTech Conference In Tel Aviv (Forbes)

  • FDA Is Taking Public Comments On CBD. Here’s How To Make Your Voice Heard (Marijuana Moment)

  • Police across the UK are given green light to let cannabis users off scot-free and suggest they get treatment instead of punishment (Daily Mail)

  • Alex Berenson and the Last Anti-Cannabis Crusade (The New Republic)

  • Georgia: Lawmakers Advance Bill To Regulate Low-THC Oil Production (NORML)

  • Mother of girl with epilepsy has supply of medical cannabis confiscated (The Guardian)

  • New York City: Lawmakers Advance Bills Limiting Drug Testing for Cannabis as a Condition of Employment, Probation (NORML)

  • Nova Scotia Woman Plans Constitutional Challenge of Roadside Cannabis Test (Leafly)

  • Hawaii Senate Committee Approves Bill To Decriminalize Marijuana (Marijuana Moment)

  • Senate Bill Would Let Marijuana Businesses Store Profits In Banks (Forbes)

  • California bill to block home delivery of cannabis sidelined for year (Los Angeles Times)

  • Another Connecticut Committee Approves Marijuana Legalization (Marijuana Moment)

  • Will the European legal cannabis industry prosper? (Health Europa)

  • GOP Congressman’s Bill Would Let Medical Marijuana Patients Possess Guns (Marijuana Moment)

  • Mergers And Acquisitions Light Up The Cannabis Sector (Forbes)

  • Indiana Lawmakers Amend Hemp Bill To Allow Smokeable Flower (Marijuana Moment)

  • People of Color Were Targeted by the War on Drugs. They Must Benefit from Marijuana Legalization (Newsweek)

  • Can Cannabis Help You Get Off Adderall? (Civilized)

  • Where Presidential Candidate Tim Ryan Stands On Marijuana (Marijuana Moment)

  • Cannabis stocks lower as investors await the fate of the States Act (MarketWatch)

LSD

  • ‘SNL’ Introduces a Hilarious Film Critic Who Sees Movies on Acid So You Don’t Have To (IndieWire)

  • T.C. Boyle’s new novel takes a trip with LSD evangelist Timothy Leary (Los Angeles Times)

MAGIC MUSHROOMS

  • China Enters Magic Mushroom Industry – Wuhan, MJMedTech, and M2BIO (Psilocybin Technology)

  • Psilocybin-assisted mindfulness training modulates self-consciousness and brain default mode network connectivity with lasting effects (ScienceDirect)

  • Presidential Candidate Jay Inslee Is Open To Decriminalizing Psychedelic Mushrooms (Marijuana Moment)

  • Seth Rogen Talks About Taking Magic Mushrooms At Cirque du Soleil (Marijuana Moment)

  • I went to a chic fundraiser for Denver's psilocybin mushroom vote (Rooster Magazine)

  • The return of the 'stoned ape' theory (Big Think)

  • Sacred Mushrooms of the Mazatec Tradition: Transforming the Inner Landscape of the Human Psyche (Chacruna)

  • How Psilocybin Reset My Suicidal Thoughts And Taught Me To Love Myself (Reset.me)

MDMA

  • Inside an Innovative Study of MDMA Therapy for Alcohol Use Disorder (Filter)

  • MDMA helps adult mice socialize like their adolescent selves (Quartz)

  • Cate Faehrmann: Why a lawmaker admitted to taking MDMA (BBC)

  • Teenager dies after taking six times the 'safe' level of Ecstasy (Your EDM)

  • 'She didn't get the chance to learn from her mistake': Father's anguish after his daughter, 18, died from her first hit of liquid ecstasy - as he reveals the tragic final words she spoke to him (Daily Mail)

  • Illinois man dies after taking ecstasy; parents now educate others on dangers of drug (WTKR)

  • Psychedelic Drug MDMA May Help Treat PTSD (Tech Times)

AYAHUASCA

  • Translating Ayahuasca Shamanism and Western Medicine (Kahpi)

  • Global Ayahuasca Community Joins Together to Defend Ceremony Leader (Talking Drugs)

5-MEO-DMT

  • Study: 5-MeO-DMT May Rapidly Improve Anxiety and Depression (Reset.me)

PEYOTE

IBOGA

  • Dutch natural healer gets 8 years for death of Swedish woman (NL Times)

NOVEL PSYCHOACTIVE SUBSTANCES

  • Ireland: Controversial ban on new psychoactive substances succeeds in reducing health problems (Scottish Legal News)

SYNTHETIC CANNABINOIDS

  • State forensics lab identifying new synthetic cannabinoids (WLOX)

  • A Bunch of Dutch People Smoked Fake Weed for Science (Civilized)

  • Leeds outreach workers devise revolutionary treatment for Spice addiction (Leeds Live)

NITROUS OXIDE

KETAMINE

  • Ketamine May Relieve Depression By Repairing Damaged Brain Circuits (NPR)

  • Thai boys trapped in cave were sedated with ketamine (The Independent)

  • Ketamine vs. Esketamine for Depression (Psychology Today)

  • Emily Atack reveals she was offered ketamine in a nightclub toilet...as she recalls losing her knickers after an all night romp after the BRIT Awards (Daily Mail)

OPIATES/OPIOIDS

  • DOJ Charges UK Firm With Conspiracy, Fraud Over Opioid Withdrawal Drug Suboxone Film (Gizmodo)

  • After three years of controversy, CDC clarifies its opioid prescribing guidelines (STAT)

  • More than 10,300 Canadians lost their lives to opioids in less than 3 years (CBC)

  • Poppy Cultivation and Potential Opium Production in Afghanistan (The White House)

  • In poll season, Punjab debates legalising poppy seed and opium farming (Down To Earth Magazine)

  • Public urged to keep free naloxone overdose kits on hand (The London Free Press)

  • Family Dog Survives Eating Five Bags of Heroin (The Epoch Times)

  • Naloxone available at UNT pharmacy without a prescription (North Texas Daily)

  • Alabama school staff trains to administer naloxone to reverse opioid overdoses (CBS News)

  • Forcing treatment and tying the hands of physicians won’t solve the opioid crisis (The Philadelphia Inquirer)

  • Big Pharma’s Millions Won’t Solve the Opioid Crisis (Tonic)

  • Rajasthan farmers caught in ‘opium crisis’ (The Times of India)

  • How eating four slices of multigrain bread at a airport lounge led a fly-in-fly-out miner to failing a drugs test - and him stood down from his job (Daily Mail)

  • Hanover deputy released from hospital following possible fentanyl exposure (WWBT)

COCAINE

  • The United States' 'War on Drugs' Really Did Make Things Worse, New Research Finds (ScienceAlert)

  • Heather Yakin: Cocaine making comeback with new, lethal forms (Times Herald-Record)

METHAMPHETAMINE

  • Meth Mania: From Biker Gangs to the Psych Ward, How Speed Came of Age in California (KQED)

  • Family's dog tests positive for meth, molly after walk in park (WKRG)

CAFFEINE

TOBACCO

  • Illinois Becomes First State in Midwest to Adopt 'Tobacco 21' (NBC Chicago)

  • Delaware House approves raising age to buy tobacco products (Delaware Online)

  • Iowa Senate bill would increase age to buy all tobacco, vape products from 18 to 21 (KGAN TV)

  • Temple University takes major step in becoming tobacco-free: 'It's incredibly important' (KYW Newsradio 1060)

  • Texas could soon increase the legal age to buy tobacco, though active military members might be exempt (The Texas Tribune)

ALCOHOL

  • Alcohol use disorder: Brain damage may progress despite sobriety (Medical News Today)

  • No, moderate drinking can't protect against stroke. It actually increases risk, study says (USA Today)

  • There's new evidence for why we get the 'drunchies' after a night of heavy drinking (INSIDER)

  • Penn study finds genetic differences between heavy drinkers and alcoholics (Pittsburgh Post-Gazette)

  • A gene linked to alcohol habits may influence who you choose to marry (New Scientist)

  • Ethiopia passes tough law regulating alcohol sales, adverts (Africanews)

  • Proposed Federal Alcohol Labeling Revisions Retain Constitutionally Suspect Review Standards (Forbes)

  • The Big Number: 17.6 million Americans suffer from alcoholism (The Washington Post)

  • Australian Instagram personalities found to be under influence of alcohol industry (The Guardian)

  • First-Ever Female Libido Pill Gets Relief on Alcohol Warning (Bloomberg)

  • Lawmaker aims to lower blood alcohol limit (WIVB)

  • Does Red Wine Help You Live Longer? Here's What the Science Says (TIME)

  • April is National Alcohol Awareness Month (Marietta Daily Journal)

KRATOM

  • An Herbal Drug Called Kratom Has Been Linked to Almost 100 Overdose Deaths, the CDC Reports (TIME)

  • Castle Rock steps out front on regulating kratom, the popular but controversial herbal extract (The Denver Post)

  • Oregon Lawmakers Could Pass a Law Regulating Kratom (The Portland Mercury)

  • Kratom ban pushed by Pa. parents of son who fatally OD’d on ‘herbal heroin’ (PennLive.com)

  • FDA Report Finds Heavy Metals in Kratom – Is It Really That Bad? (Kratom Guides)

  • Northeast Mississippi counties continue conversation on Kratom (Northeast Mississippi Daily Journal)

  • 'Kratom literally saved my life' (WGRZ)

MISCELLANEOUS

  • The World’s Biggest Dark Net Market Has Shut – What Next? (VICE)

  • Sciencing the mystical: the trickery of the psychedelic trip report (Taylor and Francis)

  • California tests if addiction treatment can be incorporated into primary care (Politico)

  • Presidential Candidate Andrew Yang Walks Back Pledge To Pardon All Non-Violent Drug Offenders (Marijuana Moment)

  • Rejected Depression Drug Could Provide Relief For Opioid Withdrawal (The Fix)

  • Inside the Legal Struggle Over Safe Consumption Spaces (Filter)

  • The new science of psychedelics: How hallucinogens provide a tool for changing our minds (AlterNet)

  • Psychedelic Plants in a Time of Ecological Crisis (Adventures Through The Mind)

  • How drugs got on the metric system (Rooster Magazine)

  • To Address Addiction, Confront Racism in Our Health and Justice Systems (Filter)

  • Proposal to allow needle exchanges statewide heads to House floor (Tampa Bay Times)

  • How Helpful—Or Harmful—Are Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs? (Filter)

  • Overdose prevention sites can help cities like Philadelphia save lives (STAT)

  • Psychedelic Research and You. Well, Maybe, not You (Chacruna)

  • Vindictive Drug-Induced Homicide Charges Are Set to Surge in Chicago (Filter)

  • LSD, shrooms, and psychiatry: Penn summit highlights clinical applications of psychedelics (The Daily Pennsylvanian)

  • Law enforcement are not drug experts (AOD Media Watch)

  • Playlist for Psychedelic Restoration (Tam Integration)

  • How Open Relationships and Psychedelics Have Shaped This Entrepreneur's Mindset (Entrepreneur)

  • Acetaminophen crisis bigger than opioid epidemic? (Drug WarRant)

  • There’s a way to stem the increase in HIV infections (The Philadelphia Inquirer)

  • Microdosing psychedelics may improve mood and productivity (ZME Science)

  • Psychedelic club emphasizes benefits of shrooms (Rocky Mountain Collegian)


Think Wilder is reader-supported. If you enjoyed this week’s update, please consider helping out by becoming a patron, making a one-time donation, or sharing this post with a friend. Thank you for your support.

Disclaimer: "This Week in Psychoactives" does not censor or analyze the news links presented here. The purpose of this column is solely to catalogue how psychedelics are presented by the mass media, which includes everything from the latest scientific research to misinformation.

Image by Psychedelic Astronaut.


On the Monday following each edition of “This Week in Psychoactives,” I post a “Last Week in Psychoactives” video recap to my YouTube channel. After that is done, I retroactively add the video to the corresponding blog post. Here is this week’s video recap: